Friday, October 22, 2010

The Guardian, NY Times reveal details of new WikiLeaks documents that contains details of 'serial detainee abuse' of detainees, 66,081 non-combatant deaths

On Friday evening The Guardian and New York Times revealed the details of the latest WikiLeaks documents dump, a day ahead of a schedule press conference by the controversial new media firm.

The Guardian (Brilliant interactive feature here.)
New York Times

The major television networks were completely irrelevant tonight as both Guardian and Times dedicated the majority of their home pages to the WikiLeaks story. None of the cable news networks changed their programming plans to cover the story. The network news websites, however, featured the story prominently, revealing (if it was necessary) that the networks view their television news programming as too important to their businesses to be bothered by, you know, news content, and that the proper place for breaking news is online.

The consequences of events like this are that the web grows in credibility at the expense of traditional media. It is assumed, of course, that the major newspapers will feature this report prominently on their front pages tomorrow. But the television networks have all but surrendered news such as this devastating report to the web.

Why a Friday documents dump? Friday afternoon and evening is usually reserved for releasing stories you want to disappear into the weekend (which is exactly what is happening on American television).

WikiLeaks plans on a Saturday press conference (or, at least, some sort of announcement). I suppose one could argue that the massive amount to documents require time to shift through, but it appears that the major news outlets that reported this tonight have had the information in their possession for long enough to get discover the major details.

The evolution of personal computers (& media) continued: HP launches their business tablet, the HP Slate 500

Is this really a tablet (see video below), or a PC? -- it runs Windows, after all. Well, the question is pointless because this is probably the direction computers are heading -- smaller, more portable, multitouch, etc.

Not that all computers will be tablets -- absolutely not -- but all computers will soon have features we now see in mobile devices such as multitouch, etc. And more importantly, the line between mobile devices (smartphones and tablets) will become so blurred as to become an irrelevancy (and so media companies need to develop for all devices where media is consumed, not just "mobile" devices).

This has to be the most boring promotional video I've ever seen to date, oh well -- the new HP Slate 500, a tablet targeted at enterprise customers (it runs Windows rather than a mobile OS such as Android, or even Windows Phone 7). Priced at $799, some consumers are complaining about the price, but businesses shouldn't see this as a problem, assuming they are attracted to the product.

Reuters: Murdoch's News Corp. can't reach critical mass in attempt to create its own digital newsstand

Is this really a surprise: News Corp. is shelving its plans to create a digital newsstand -- at least according to Reuters.

It is interesting that Reuters starts its story by stating that it is "Rupert Murdoch's News Corp" that is ending its online newsstand plans. The addition of the name of the owners, presumably, is a major reason publishers are leery of the idea.

The fact is that any publisher would have a hard time gathering cats publishers together to create a digital newsstand -- the task takes an honest broker and few publishers trust their colleagues, or their motives in creating such a newsstand.

I see that one columnist has warned publishers that slowing magazine iPad app sales "suggest consumer dissatisfaction".

What's missing from the argument is a realistic look at the size of the tablet media market. Yes, Wired may have sold over 100,000 issues with its initial effort and now sales are less than half that. But 100,000 sales out of a market of just over a couple million tablets was a crazy number to begin with. By my calculations, Wired had a 3.3 percent penetration of the entire tablet market after the first week or so of launching its app. Imagine selling 3 percent of the entire print market -- what would that number be?

As the iPad audience grows, and as other tablets (especially Android-based tablets) are released, I am sure we will see publishers reporting increasing sales rather than declining ones.

If one year ago I had told you that by the summer of this year a magazine publisher would have a new way to increase its single copy sales by 30 percent or more would you have believed me?

New Mac store opens up the desktop for media apps; the evolution of personal computers creates new opportunities

I was out of town on Wednesday when Steve Jobs conducted his lasted new product release event -- this one centering on the Mac computer rather than the company's iOS devices. But thanks to live streaming, I was able to view the entire event on my phone.

The idea of the Back to the Mac event was that Apple would now come full circle by bringing to the Mac's operating system those features that they had developed for the iPad -- the most important of these being the App Store.
According to Jobs, the new Mac App Store will launch within 90 days -- putting its launch date awfully close to the time Apple would be conducting another product event (if you recall, the iPad launch event was held at the end of January of this year).

Now why would Apple want to create yet another App Store? Well, many people immediately thought that the company desires to get its 30 percent share of all Mac application software sales (they are probably right). But the Mac, unlike the iPhone or iPad, is not a closed product. You can buy a copy of Microsoft Office on Amazon, for instance, and load it yourself at home without the transaction going through some Apple controlled store. This will continue.

But Apple has learned that if they create an environment where developers can sell their goods directly to customers, like the App Store, developers will flock to it -- and that, of course, ends up being a huge boost for whatever Apple device that developer is developing for.

Why not do the same thing for the Mac, Apple must be thinking. Create an App Store for the Mac, let developers build new apps, and customers who are used to dealing with apps for their phones and the iPad will want the same sort of experience for their computers.

Before I talk about the implications for media companies, let's review this market for a second.

According to Apple's chief operating officer Tim Cook, Apple sold 13.7 Macs this last fiscal year (three times as many Macs as were sold in 2005). More importantly, the total Mac market represents just short of 50 million users worldwide.

Someone at Apple had to be thinking 'what if we exploited our Mac user base the same way we do our iPhone or iPad user base?'

I've had several newspaper executives ask me directly what I thought the existing iPad user base looked like, and how big did I think it would be in a year or two. What these newspaper folk were wondering was whether it was a good investment of their time and resources to develop for tablets, or whether they would be better off continuing to look exclusively to the web. (All these newspapers execs had, incidentally, already committed to tablet development.)

But we already know the user base of the Mac is close to 50 million, so why not treat the Mac as a media device and begin developing a media app for that device, too?

OK, we know how Apple views this, but how should media folk look at this -- specifically, publishers? Is this another gimmick, just a way to make publishers develop another app, this one for the Mac?

I was travelling this week and I couldn't help notice that many business people were still lugging around heavy Dell or HP laptops. Many of these business people, though, also were carrying iPhones. One guy, sitting next to me on a flight, had both a BlackBerry and an iPhone on him (he complained of having to carry the BlackBerry).
Will people still use these heavy laptops five years from now? We know that Apple doesn't think so - their new MacBook Air (at right) appears to be getting a new lease on life, and this time they may have a winner. But what about all those Windows based machines? More importantly, what if Google convinces laptop makers to not only use Android for their new tablets, but for some laptops, as well? Is it possible that the future looks a lot more like the mobile market, and less like the old computer market of the eighties and nineties?

For media companies, the idea of content everywhere is attractive, but difficult to implement. But the rise of both iOS and Android might be making it easier. 2010 was the year of the iPad. 2011 will be the year of the tablet as new Android-based tablets begin to enter the market and iPad continues to sell. But as tablets are introduced and take a bite out of the notebook/netbook market, don't be surprised if notebook/netbook begin to look and feel more like mobile devices and less like old desktops. And that means that publishers will have to be prepared to treat all "computers" as "devices" and develop their new electronic products accordingly.

Morning Brief: Zinio gives VIVmag its own branded iPad app; the Marines and the iPad; playing politics with Haiti

Back from the West Coast -- glad to be back in the heartland, but damn its cold here. The trees sure look nice this time of year, though.

Zinio has released a separate iPad app for its flagship magazine, VIVmag. The free download gives you a peak of the issue before being forced to sign up in the Zinio digital newsstand to get access to the full edition.

This separate app is an admission that many iPad users prefer separate apps for their magazines, instead of hunting for them inside a newsstand. Being a strictly digital magazines, VIVmag has some major advantages in that the editors are thinking about interactive content from the start.
As a result, the reviews for the app are already very positive inside iTunes, as you'd expect.

Within the press release issued by Zinio is some interesting statistics:
Based on a recent statistic from the Harrison Group, about 15% of women state they either currently own an iPad, or intend to purchase one in the next year. The same study found that women are highly interested in the kinds of features that can only be experienced through an interactive offering like VIVmag's app for iPad: 71% want images and videos that enable 360 degree views and the like, about half (52%) want to be able to purchase items mentioned in articles directly through the device on which they are reading, and almost half (43%) want advertising that is dynamic—allowing them to interact with ads by changing colors and other features of a product.
Strange survey, huh? I can imagine that the questions asked included a list of proposed features and the respondent simply checked those that they thought might be interesting. But I'm not expecting to see massive protests by women in the streets of Paris over the lack of 360 degree animated graphics in some tablet editions.

Because it is important to keep up with the latest in grenade launchers, the Marines have created their own tablet edition of Marines Magazine.

Marines Magazine for iPad is a free download (thank goodness, because the price of those grenade launchers just keeps going up), and in iTunes Bates Creative Group is credited with being the developer -- their first app as far as I can see.

On a more serious note, it looks like the developer and publisher did a good job. Since it's a free download it is probably a good idea to check it out.

At the UN donors’ conference in March of this year the U.S. promised $1.15 billion for Haiti reconstruction. As of today not a penny of it has been received by Haiti thanks to the hold that has been put on it by Oklahoma Senator Tom Coburn.

Now this: Haiti president confirms cholera outbreak, 138 dead.

Thursday, October 21, 2010

Smaller tablets will be great for gaming, media not so much

One small comment by Steve Jobs made on Apple's earnings call deserves retweeting: Jobs criticized the idea of smaller form tablets, saying that this makes touchscreen using more difficult.

Jobs has a point. And it makes even more sense when you think of media apps. Good luck reading those newspaper replica editions on a seven inch tablet.

Wednesday, October 20, 2010

The Italian Job - Part 3: a last look at some of the recently released replica edition iPad apps -- Il Messaggero

The number one free news app in the Italian iTunes App Store today is the app from Il Messaggero. The app was released on the 12th and it is no wonder the app has been so positively received -- the app is not only free, but unlike other news apps that require you buy a subscription once you have installed the app, this one is giving it all away (at least for now).
What is interesting about the Il Messaggero app (and a joy really) is that the developers actually got the language settings right. I know that is a minor gripe, but so many foreign language apps are released with English listed as the language. This one does not hide anything -- it says "Italian" under language, and the description is completely in Italian.

Il Messaggero also has a separate iPhone app in iTunes, as well, though it is to be found under its developer's name -- K Group. The iPad app, however, is listed under their own name.

← The one addition the publisher has made is to include
a stand-alone ad at the launch of the tablet edition.

For those unfamiliar with the newspaper, Il Messaggero is the most popular daily newspaper in Rome and central Italy, and combined with its free content helps explains why it is shot up to the top of the news app category.

But like the other Italian newspaper apps we've seen, this, too, is a replica edition with minimal interactive content. The video below shows most of the features of the app -- and there aren't many -- so no need to list them here.

But whereas some newspapers are so print centric that they do not have separate constantly updated websites, Il Messaggero has a fully functioning news site so their decision to go with a simple replica edition is a bit odd.

Thoughts on newspaper circulation: tablet subscriptions are more like music downloads than print subscriptions

Many years ago it was someone's crazy idea to make your humble servant a newspaper circulation manager for six month. It turned out to be one of the most fun jobs I've ever had, even if getting up extra early was a pain.

So thinking about tablet subscriptions from the perspective of a circulation director, I think I would be leery of those who think you can begin selling massive amounts of iPad subscriptions at rates near your home delivery rates. I just don't think that iPad owners look at those monthly or annual costs as some sort of incremental purchase -- like buying the latest Lady Gaga song from iTunes.
For some newspaper readers, buying a recurring subscription to their metro daily is an either/or choice. If I'm going to spend $100 a year or more on a newspaper do I want it in print or on my iPad? If the newspaper will combine the two then that is a retention strategy, right?

I've reached the conclusion -- at least for now -- that pricing strategy has to match circulation strategy. Is your tablet app designed to attract new digital readers, or to retain print readers that are moving to electronic devices? The New York Post recently released an app that gives readers access to the paper for a month for $1.99. But after that time the price goes dramatically up -- though still a discount over home delivery to reflect the lower production and distribution costs. The Post's move would at first appear to be a new reader acquisition strategy, but long term it is a subscriber migration strategy.

Of course, the Post is heavily into single copy sales compared to, say, the St. Louis Post-Dispatch. So newspapers with heavy home delivery levels have some serious financial calculations to do. Unfortunately, many of these mobile publishing decisions are being made by either a designated mobile manager or by executive officers. Bad idea. Newspaper publishing has always been a team activity, and now is not the time to change this.

For buyers of apps, the purchase of a periodical through the iTunes App Store is much like buying the latest Lady Gaga song: an impulse buy that they soon regret. At 99 cents or $1.99, these purchases are of little consequence. But don't expect the same sort of buying habits to be employed with an in-app subscription that will cost a more substantial amount.

If I were in charge of mobile strategy at a newspaper (and, yes, I am available!) I'd demand that the circulation manager and ad director were in the same room when discussing options (the editor can go outside for a while and get some coffee). Is a new iPad app an attempt to grow readership for advertising purposes? If so, then there are lots of questions that need to follow. But if the tablet edition is a retention strategy then a lot of numbers need to crunched to determine proper pricing.

But what about a third option: the tablet edition as a new product? I love this option, but most newspapers continue to see their iPad apps as brand extensions -- products that bring in the same content as the print or web product. Creating a new, unique tablet product solves many possible problems with circulation, but it, of course, creates new ones on the editorial side.

So far, at least, the major newspaper companies like the NY Times and Tribune Company who have been experimenting with new product creation are doing so for the iPhone. The Times, for instance, has recently updated their iPad app to make it more like their print and web products, not less. The Tribune Company has yet to release an iPad app, though one is expected soon. (Though, I might add, that hasn't stopped some developers from grabbing the RSS feeds of the Tribune to create their own paid iPad news apps.)

I might add, isn't it strange that no newspaper company has created a new tablet edition for an area outside their home delivery zones?

Tuesday, October 19, 2010

The Italian Job - Part 2: a quick look at some of the recently released replica edition iPad apps

The second app we'll look at from an Italian newspaper is for La Provincia di Cremona e Crema from Societa Editoriale Cremonese s.p.a.
The iPad app is free to download. Readers then download the edition and can see the front page, but then must decide if they wish to buy a single copy or a subscription.

The problem with this app is apparent immediately: downloading the paper takes forever.

The app has a fair amount of features for a replica app such as sending pages to friends as an e-mail clipping, archiving, and managing your account online. But the pain of downloading the editions is not made up for by the product itself.
I will admit I am of two minds when it comes to the use of the replica model for newspapers: one part of me understands that the iPad is about the best reading device we've come up with -- other than print, and for many, the ability to read their daily newspapers on their tablets was a big reason they bought their iPad; but tablets such as the iPad have created a new platform for publishers, one where there will be new reading behavior as well as new content requirements.

Some publishers, like the NY Times, have concluded (consciously or not) to build their tablet editions off their websites not their print editions, believing (rightly) that their web content is the most up-to-date available, and using feeds to populate their tablet products is a simple and reasonable solution (versus creating a tablet product from their print PDFs).

But what if your website looks like this: the website of La Provincia. Definitely not an example of a web first approach, is it?

So what are the most popular news apps in the Italian App Store you ask? The favorite paid news apps are pretty much the same as the most popular in the U.S.: the Pulse News Reader, Instapaper and other RSS feed readers. Interestingly, the French paper Le Monde is listed seventh in the paid category. The only home grown app making the list is for Il Fatto Quotidiano per Abbonati, though it appears to be a replica edition as well, but one that employs the look of iBooks -- maybe that, plus a low price is what is satisfying Italians.

The free app category, though, is dominated by Italian newspapers such as La Repubblica, La Gazzetta dello Sport and others. Only the New York Times for iPad breaks into the top ten.

At the very top of that list is the new app from Il Messaggero, and that is what we'll look at next.

The Italian Job - Part 1: a quick look at some of the recently released replica edition iPad apps

The U.S. iTunes App Store is a confusing mess -- this everyone in media pretty agrees -- caused by the fact that almost all news apps, whether English language or not is included in the store. Occasionally, like with Bild (a German magazine app) the developers understand that the U.S. market will not be interested and so they limit the availability of their app.

Recently a handful of apps from Italian newspapers have been released. None break much new ground compared, for instance, with the newest version of the New York Times iPad app. But Italian newspapers, unlike their American cousins, appear eager to make their papers available on the tablet, rushing to develop and release apps.

The app from publisher Gruppo Editoriale L’Espresso for Alto Adige is now, I guess, a collector's item. The developer has pulled the app from the iTunes store completely. Even a check of the Italian app store shows no traces of the app. Very strange.

I don't know if developer of this app is the same as that of La Repubblica's iPad app, Paperlit, but I know that the Italians were very quick to launch iPad apps once Apple launched the iPad in Europe. My coverage of the International launch back in May included a number of Italian newspapers.
The biggest complaint from Italian readers of La Repubblica +, the iPad app for the newspaper, is that a subscription is required, and single copy sales are not available -- that and crashing, of course.

But while this new app is essentially just a replica edition with subscription plan, the La Repubblica app has added a few features including multimedia content and text versions of stories.

As we look at the next two tablet editions from Italian newspapers, one thing comes into focus: replica editions are the norm.

Just a thought: iPad success not dependent on techies

I think this is ultimately good news for publishers: it isn't the techies that turned out to be the early adopters of the iPad, but young, mostly males who were either iPhone or Mac users. Because of this, the audience for media apps is reaching a more representative audience than might have been expected.

This is my interpretation of the research that has been conducted so far. On the other hand, looking at those who are thinking of pre-ordering Windows Phone 7 devices, one has to wonder why? Without the apps and content available through iOS, or even Android devices, who would line-up to be the first to try these phones? Techies, right?

Monday, October 18, 2010

Editor & Publisher soap opera continues

In case you have not heard yet, there have been major changes at newspaper trade journal Editor & Publisher (again). Here is the official word, followed by my own thoughts:

The official word:

The Duncan McIntosh Company, Inc. has announced changes to the editorial department of Editor & Publisher magazine. Jeff Fleming has been named editor-in-chief, Kristina Ackermann is managing editor, and Deena Higgs Nenad is associate editor...

"We understand what this magazine means to the industry and the responsibility we took on when we bought it," company president, Duncan McIntosh said. "We are committed to fulfilling that responsibility and improving the quality of content both in print and online."
Blogger Tony Case was the first to report on word that the editorial team at newspaper trade journal Editor & Publisher had been fired and replaced. The once weekly, then monthly, trade journal was closed by Nielsen in December of last year after attempts to sell the title failed. It was then reopened under the ownership of the Duncan McIntosh Company, an Irvine, California publisher of boating magazines, early this -- but minus editor Greg Mitchell (he landed at The Nation) and Joe Strupp (he landed at MediaMatters).

TNM is (rather proudly) not that interested in the journalism side of the business -- there is enough navel gazing already out there -- but if you'd like more of the bloody details here is the original report from Tony Case, along with further posts from Mitchell, and Richard Prince at the Maynard Institute.

During my time at Hearst and other newspaper companies E&P was always the main trade publication for the industry; but while others may wax nostalgically about the old weekly magazine I remember it mostly as a sycophantic mouthpiece for the industry. As someone actually in the industry I never learned anything from E&P -- though I loved the NewsPeople section (I was in there once or twice myself) and those help-wanted ads in the back of the book (I think I landed my first Bay Area gig through an E&P classified ad).

At one point the weekly was converted to a monthly to eliminate those occasional anemic issues with one stronger monthly edition. But the one thing that was working was paid circulation and classified advertising -- two things that don't jive with a monthly unless the display pages can grow dramatically.

At least one other magazine for the newspaper industry was launched -- I remember one from the eighties that I thought was editorially miles ahead of E&P -- but unless the vendors are willing to support a tell-all magazine it has no chance.

(I should add here that former editor Greg Mitchell deserves credit for saying what the rest of the nation was thinking: that the media industry had let the nation down by failing to professionally cover the lead up to the Iraq War. I imagine there are still those who think it wasn't E&P's role to talk of such things -- though it is crystal clear to me that it is exactly the role of a trade journal to speak honestly of its industry.)

The roots of the demise of E&P are no different than many other trade publications: 1) loss of subscription revenue as many books went to controlled circulation models; 2) embarrassingly weak editorial, with editors and reporters afraid to write honestly about their industries; 3) a poor attitude towards the web and new publishing platforms -- especially apparent in our current crop of media books who should have been on the mobile and tablet bandwagon months ago but are still are lagging behind; and 4) and the new owners of B2B media, PE firms -- nuff said.

But the main reason B2Bs have failed is that they have forgotten the formula: strong publishing leadership with industry knowledge and direct industry participation; a commitment to recruiting, training and leading a sales staff that knows its industry, knows its customers, and knows its products. Add to that credible editorial and you have a winner. It's not that complicated. Really.

Forecast: light posting ahead

Tomorrow is a travel day as I head to the west coast. Expect light posting this week. But . . . I've got a few posts lined up that look at some international news apps, so there will be some new content coming your way today through Thursday. Fear not.

Vanderbilt students release first app; efforts for schools vary widely, third party developers take advantage

The student journalists at Vanderbilt University have released a universal news app today, the app is free in iTunes this morning.
InsideVandy is the latest effort by a university team to develop for iOS. Last year the students at Abilene Christian University released an iPad app for their student paper -- ACU Optimist for iPad was a student project that managed to release an iPad app shortly after the tablet was first released. Because the students weren't able to get their hands on an actual device they were forced, like many at that time, to use the simulator when developing their first app.

The release today from the students at Vanderbilt got me wondering how other universities were doing.

The first thing one notices in iTunes is how many independent companies want to take advantage of the college sports scene. Taking one school as an example, the University of Wisconsin-Madison, this Big Ten school, like many others, has their own home page within iTunes. But all their materials are still within iTunes U -- that fantastic reservoir of podcasts and other learning material. So far at least, the schools is light on apps.
But independent developers are not shy in trying to take advantage of America's love of sports -- especially college sports. The Badgers have several different iPhone apps targeted at their program, including an 'official" app developed by CBS Interactive. The UW Badgers app costs a whopping $4.99 and has not been well received by Badger fans. CBS Interactive has over 60 iPhone apps inside iTunes (some under 'CBS Interactive', others under 'CBS Interactive, Inc.' -- it gets confusing inside iTunes). CBS Interactive also offers a "lite" version of its app for free though that has landed inside iTunes with a thud.

The local paper, owned by Lee Enterprises, has launched a free app through Handmark. Badger Beat might be free but it doesn't help that it opens to the football schedule -- a schedule that has a glaring mistake (it shows a home game listed as away, a minor mistake for some, but not for rabid football fans).

Worse yet, the app only has football content, a big mistake considering that UW-Madison is known for its hockey program -- men's and women's. If anything, the Lee Enterprises app only shows the newspaper's disregard for properly covering the university. (And things get even worse the further you explore the app. Looking further one sees that this app is promoting other apps from Handmark -- none of which have anything to do with the school, Madison, Wisconsin, etc.)

Most of the time the question I would ask a newspaper company would be "are you serious about mobile?" In this case, I'd simply ask "are you serious?"

So who would you expect would develop good apps for their university? I immediately thought 'Stanford' -- I was not disappointed, that's for sure.

A search for "Stanford" inside iTunes immediately pulls up a wealth of material listed under iTunes U, including several series of podcast on app development. The apps themselves are varied and numerous, including several apps involving the medical program (the magazine Stanford Medicine has its own iPad app, for instance).

If a publisher wants to understand the varied uses for mobile and tablet media, look at what is going on at the major universities -- both internally and externally. There is unlimited potential . . . if you take it seriously, of course.

Morning Brief: Sky is falling, or something; RIM wants to attract developers, duh; newspaper mobile woes continue

Later today Apple is scheduled to report its quarterly earnings, and the latest guess is that Apple will say it sold 12 iPhones, a 60 percent increase in sales.

So naturally, the NYT says 'the sky is falling' -- or something to that effect.

If there is a lesson here it is that one should never read a story where the headline ends in a question mark. In this case "Will Apple’s Culture Hurt the iPhone?". It's a sure sign that the writer hasn't anything new to report but needs to write something anyway. If there were really news or insights contained in the story the headline would have conveyed it. A 'question mark' headline is the equivalent of the writer and editor raising their hands up and saying "who know".

Interesting juxtaposition of two search results: BlackBerry App Store To Court Developers, followed by There are now 300,000 apps on Apple's App Store.

RIM may want to attract developers to build apps for their new products, but Apple advantage is not just in the total number of apps in iTunes, but the total number of paid apps: now over 200,000. The reason this is important is that developers want to developer advertising free apps that stand a chance of making them some money. The Android platform is growing quickly, and the number of apps available for the platform is exploding. But developers are making money by developing for iOS, something that will remain hard to combat.

How do you know when a newspaper has given up trying to compete:

1) ... it talks about adopting a editorial/subscriber strategy versus an advertising strategy -- this is a sure sign that the folks in the corporate offices have never sold an ad in their lives, and besides, who wants to hear "no" directly in their faces.

2) ... the newspaper launches a "me-too" mobile app -- most likely released the same day a dozen others are released by the same developer. Rather than actually thinking about their mobile strategy, most publishers would prefer to brag to their friends that they, too, have an iPhone app.

3) ... when they launch a new web, mobile or tablet publishing project and tell the ad department afterwards about the product.